Infertility is the inability to get pregnant after a year of unprotected intercourse.
About 10% of couples are affected by infertility. Both men and women can be infertile. According to a study, 1/3 of the time the diagnosis is due to female infertility, 1/3 of the time it is linked to male infertility and the remaining cases of infertility are due to a combination of factors from both partners. For approximately 20% of couples, the cause cannot be determined.
What Causes Female Infertility?
Female infertility can also be caused by a number of factors, including the following:
- Damage to fallopian tubes.Damage to the fallopian tubes (which carry the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus) can prevent contact between the egg and sperm. Pelvic infections, endometrioisis, and pelvic surgeries may lead to scar formation and fallopian tube damage.
- Hormonal causes.Some women have problems with ovulation . Synchronised hormonal changes leading to the release of an egg from the ovary and the thickening of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) in preparation for the fertilised egg do not occur. These problems may be detected using basal body temperature charts, ovulation predictor kits, and blood tests to detect hormone levels.
- Cervical causes.A small group of women may have a cervical condition in which the sperm cannot pass through the cervical canal. Whether due to abnormal mucus production or a prior cervical surgical procedure, this problem may be treated with intrauterine inseminations.
- Uterine causes.Abnormal anatomy of the uterus; the presence of polyps and fibroids.
- Unexplained infertility.The cause of infertility in approximately 20% of couples will not be determined using the currently available methods of investigation.
- Age Factor. Women are born with a finite number of eggs. Thus, as the reproductive years progress, the number and quality of the eggs diminish. The chances of having a baby decrease by 3% to 5% per year after the age of 30. This reduction in fertility is noted to a much greater extent after age 40.