Vaginal discharge is caused by mucous produced from the cervix, the lower part of the womb that leads into the vagina. It helps keeps your vagina moist and protects it from infection. A normal vaginal discharge is: clear or white not smelly thick and sticky for most of the menstrual cycle clearer, wetter and more slippery around the time of ovulation – Most women produce more discharge during pregnancy and less after the menopause. Vaginal discharge serves an important housekeeping function in the female reproductive system. Fluid made by glands inside the vagina and cervix carries away dead cells and bacteria. This keeps the vagina clean and helps prevent infection. However, there are certain types of discharge that can indicate an infection. Abnormal discharge may
Human evolution is being shaped by the number of women giving birth by caesarean section, a study has found. Researchers estimate that between 3% and 6% of births worldwide are obstructed because the mother's pelvis is too small for the head or shoulders. Although the caesarean section is thought to date from ancient times, it is only in the modern era that its use has mushroomed. Its use in the United States increased from less than 5% of births in the 1970s to more than a quarter for most of the last 30 years, according to the US National Library of Medicine. NHS figures show similar rates for the UK. It is believed that the size of women's pelvises and the size of babies' heads were finely balanced over millions of years of human evolution, with hips unable to dip below a certain wi
Girls from low-income families in the U.S. are unprepared for puberty and have largely negative experiences of this transition, according to researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Their latest paper on the puberty experiences of African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic girls living mostly in urban areas of the North-eastern U.S. shows that the majority of low-income girls feel they lack the information and readiness to cope with the onset of menstruation. The research is one of the first comprehensive systematic reviews of the literature on puberty experiences of low-income girls in the U.S. "Puberty is the cornerstone of reproductive development," said Marni Sommer, Dr. PH, MSN, RN, associate professo...
Each blood type is also grouped by its Rhesus factor, or Rh factor. A Blood type is either Rh positive (Rh+) or Rh negative (Rh-). Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells. If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive (Rh+). If your blood lacks the protein, you're Rh negative (Rh-). Rh positive is the most common blood type. The Rh factor is inherited - passed down through parents’ genes to their children. If the mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, the foetus can inherit the Rh gene from the father and could be either Rh positive or Rh negative. If the mother and father are both Rh negative, the baby also will be Rh negative. "Rh-" and Pregnancy The Rh factor can cause problems if you are Rh- and your foetus is Rh+.
In a study of more than 70,000 women, optimists were less likely to get fatal cancer, heart disease, lung conditions and stroke in their retirement years. Although some of the association is explained by healthier life choices and behaviours, experts believe a positive mental attitude is powerful in itself. And even if you lack a natural sunny disposition, optimism can be learned. Encouraging people to imagine a bright future could be a good medicine to boost public health, say the authors of the study in the American Journal of Epidemiology. The researchers looked at health data collected from a large US study of working and retired female nurses. The participants had been asked to rate how optimistic they perceived themselves to be on a scale of zero to 24. Th...
There are a variety of menstrual cramp remedies that can help reduce menstrual pain: from certain foods to various exercises. However, it’s important to diagnose the cause of menstrual pain in order to find the best treatment. WATER It sounds odd, but drinking water keeps your body from retaining water and helps to avoid painful bloating during menstruation. Warm or hot water is usually better for cramps, as hot liquids increase blood flow to the skin and may relax cramped muscles. You can also eat water-based foods to increase your hydration, including: lettuce celery cucumbers watermelon berries (strawberries, blueberries, raspberries) CALCIUM Calcium can help reduce muscle cramping during menstruation. The Mayo Clinic recommends 1,000 mg per day for women betwee
If you find yourself having throat tightness, cough and trouble swallowing, you may probably be suffering from symptoms of goitre. Goitre is a swelling (hypertrophy) of a gland in the neck called the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is situated in front of the windpipe and is responsible for producing and secreting hormones that regulate growth and metabolism. In rare cases, enlargement of the thyroid gland is caused by cancer, leading to a diagnosis of thyroid cancer rather than goitre. The degree of swelling and the severity of symptoms produced by the goitre depend on the individual. Some cases involve a small amount of swelling, and others can involve considerable swelling that actually constricts the trachea and causes breathing problems. Most cases are categorised as 'simple' g...
If as a woman a man approached you - looking handsome and all that, and even better, having good manners, but on reaching closer he presents with this set of long, dark and dirty fingernails, what would you do; would you still go ahead to date him? “You can tell a lot from a man’s fingernails and how he relates to women and the world. If they are long he will either be a thinker or he is just dirty”, Anita Uti, a student at the University of Lagos said. On her part, Peggy Ofili, a Youth Corper said “If a guy’s nails are long and dirty, then you can tell he doesn't take care of himself. I cannot date such a person”. Certainly, dirty and unkempt fingernails can give the impression of poor hygiene. Just like you want your hair and skin to be healthy in the same way taking care of your nai
Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Although the symptoms may be similar, the effects of the condition and the care necessary can differ significantly for women. In addition, some of these conditions might affect women primarily or more severely than men. For example, almost 12% of women in the United States are at risk of developing breast cancer during their lifetime. Male breast cancer accounts for less than 1% of existing breast cancer cases. Other unique issues include pregnancy, menopause, and conditions of the female organs. Women can have a healthy pregnancy by getting early and regular prenatal care. They should also get recommended breast cancer, cervical cancer, and bone density screenings.
The majority of women workers say period pains affect their productivity at work but less than a third tell their boss, a survey has found. More than half (52 per cent) of women workers taking part said period pains have a negative impact on their ability to work, while just 27 per cent had told their boss period pain was responsible, according to the findings. Of that 52 per cent, nearly a third had taken at least one day's sick leave as a result. The survey, which questioned 1,000 women, found 90 per cent of the women reported having period pain at some point. Earlier this year a company in Bristol, England, introduced a “period policy” in an effort to give women more flexibility and “create a happier and healthier working environment”. Community interest firm Coexist, which has a larg
Antibiotics are used to treat infections by using them to kill off and inhibit the growth of bacteria. But they will of course disrupt the normal pH of the vagina environment which is supposed to be slightly acidic – within 3.5 and 4.5. According to Ask Alice! - a Columbia University resource, inadvertently these antibiotics while used for treatment, destroy also healthy bacteria, thereby leaving you susceptible to infections. While it is normal to have some bacteria living within and around the vagina, certain microorganisms are not supposed to be found there experts say. Thus a lady can have vaginal infections due to the activities or presence of unwanted bacteria, fungi or viruses. Some of the infections have become so common, and statistics so far show that for instance, about three
Victoria Haruna Cervical cancer is one of the few human cancers known to be directly caused by HPV. Most people who contract this infection try to get rid of it themselves not knowing what it is, and how serious it can get. About one per cent of the population that gets infected has persistent infection that can last over five years. Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of female cancer after that of the breast, according to experts. Cervical cancer arises from the cervix. It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Early on, typically no symptoms are seen. Later, symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. While bleeding after sex may not be serious, it may als...
Impaired sexual activity and sexual function problems are more common among young women than men in the year following a heart attack, finds a study published in JAMA Cardiology, Sexual Problems Comes after Heart Attack in Young Women. Sexual Problems Comes after Heart Attack in Young Women Almost 20 percent of acute myocardial infarctions, also known as AMIs - or more universally as heart attacks - occur among people between the ages of 18-55 years, and one third of these people are women. While most younger adults who experience a heart attack are reported to be sexually active before the event, little is known about sexual activity or sexual function of those patients in the period following a heart attack. Previous studies have shown women to be less likely than men to receive co
Gabriel Ifinnwa Have you ever had dandruff, with its white or oily flakes, all over your hair, shoulders and clothes (usually with an itchy scalp) .Indeed, you probably know that it can be a little embarrassing. Also, you might have an enviable hair that is thick and shiny and a wardrobe that is fashionable. But if you have dandruff, all of that may go unnoticed. Instead, the focus may be on those flakes lingering on your scalp.This is especially true for kids, teenagers and even adults who may already be self-conscious about their looks, Getting Rid of Dandruff. Getting Rid of Dandruff Dandruff is a common skin condition that causes white or grey flakes of skin to appear on the scalp and in the hair. It is probably the world’s most common hair problem. It is a common scalp disorder,
Breast milk provides the ideal nutrition for infants. It has a nearly perfect mix of vitamins, protein, and fat, and indeed everything your baby needs to grow. It's all provided in a form more easily digested than infant formula. Breast milk contains antibodies that help your baby fight off viruses and bacteria, Mama's Milk - You Need Know More. Making the decision to breastfeed is obviously a personal matter. It could also be influenced by health conditions, the decision of your healthcare providers, friends and family members’ opinions. Health professionals strongly recommend breast feeding begins within the first hour of a baby's life and continued as ‘often and as much as the baby wants.’ Mama's Milk - You Need Know More Methods of Breastfeeding Exclusive: It is an infant's c